Bohemian Crystal & Jewellery

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Glossary - A Glossary of Basic Terminology Regarding Bohemian Crystal Production

Posted by Radka Volhejnova on

  • Art Deco

A decorative, mainly architectural, style that spread in the Czech lands in the first third of the twentieth century. Unlike the more rigid functionalism, Art Deco put its emphasis on decorativeness and detail. The influence of Art Deco on Czech glass producers during this period is notably apparent.

  • Art Nouveau/Secession

An artistic style of the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth century. It’s particular characteristic is high decorativeness, ornamental elements and fluid curves. Attributes of this originally architectural style found their way into the Czech glass of the time. Czech painter Alphonse Mucha was among the leaders of Art Nouveau.

  • Baroque

An artistic style born in Italy at the end of the sixteenth century. In the following decades, it affected the culture of all Europe. Baroque is distinctly decorative, lavish and opulent. Czech glass had its heyday during the Baroque period, when it managed to overshadow even the then most famous Venetian glass.

  • Benedictines

The Order of St. Benedict, is the oldest order of Western Christianity. In Bohemia, it gained renown for its production of stained glass windows for churches and monasteries, beginning in the ninth century A.D.

  • Biedermeier

An artistic style of the first half of the nineteenth century, typical of the townsmen’s society that was on the rise at the time. The style emphasizes the love of home and cuteness, appropriateness and intimacy and its aesthetic corresponds with that. Particularly painting on glass was developing in this period.

  • Blank

The plain undecorated piece of glassware or crystal which will be further processed to be decorated, engraved, cut and polished.

  • Blown Glass

Glass produced using glassblowing pipes. The blower uses the end of the pipe to pick up molten glass, then blows the glass into a glassmaking form, where the object obtains its final shape.

  • Bohemian Crystal

Transparent glass that resembles natural quartz in appearance. It is greatly suited for various decorations and treatments. This glass first appeared in the Czech lands in the sixteenth century. Its popularity peaked at the turn of the seventeenth and eighteenth century, when it entirely overshadowed Venetian glass across Europe.

  • Barium Glass

When barium oxide is added to the basic glass mixture, the result is a product of superior clarity, strength and resiliency. Barium glass is primarily used in the production of those stemware lines which have a long, slender stem, or relatively thin-wall bowls.

  • Cameo Engraving

A figure or design is engraved in relief on to glass cased with one or more layers of colored glass. The engraved pattern is cut away the under layers provide a contrasting background.

  • Cased Glass

Glass with one or more colored layers. As the engraver cuts through the layers, the different colors are revealed. Various shades can be achieved by skillful control of the depth of cut.

  • CRYSTAL

 A much abused term which in the trade, simply refers to a clear colourless glass. The general materials used to produce crystal are fine silica sand, potash, and cullet (broken pieces of glass which are essential for the batch mixture). Other materials can be added to the basic batch mixture, such as oxides, i.e. lead oxide, gold oxide, barium etc.

  • CRYSTALITE

This is glassware which achieves the brilliance similar to lead crystal through the use of alternative minerals. It allows the glass to be more clear and brilliant as well as allow some forms of cutting and etching. Crystallite does not have a lead content.

  • CUTTING, ENGRAVING AND ETCHING

Cutting, engraving or etching on glass or crystal are three completely separate techniques of decorating glassware. The easiest way to distinguish between the three techniques is that cutting is a “wet process”, while engraving and etching are relatively “dry processes”. A diamond-carborundum wheel is used for cutting glass crystal and a continuous stream of water during the cutting process ensures the tiny glass particles are removed. Engraving is done generally with the use of a small copper wheel which produces a “shallow cutting” into the surface of the product. A small amount of abrasive fluid (not water) is used in order for the wheel to move more smoothly over the surface and scratch the design into the piece. Etching can be done with a laser or acid process.

  • COLOURED CRYSTAL

Colour is introduced into the glass by the addition of various oxides to the basic batch mixture. Gold oxide (as well as chrome oxide) is used to produce the ruby colour, this is the reason why ruby glass is generally more expensive. Iron oxide produces a green colour, cobalt oxide produces blue glass and the addition of uranium oxide will produce an amber or yellow colour. It should be noted that generally, colour is found in non-lead crystal products, but may also be used in glass which covers full lead crystal. MOULDS Both wooden and cast iron moulds are used in the production of crystal/glass products. Although, the wooden moulds are produced from hardwoods (Cherry and Beechwood), they must be replaced more often as they burn-out after time despite being immersed in water.

  • Definition of Crystal

Although nowadays, according to industrial standards, crystal in Europe is understood to be only leaded glass, the term crystal is used for all glass that is close to natural quartz in its unique physical properties and optical characteristics – high luster and transparency. Crystal can also be a lead-free glass.

  • Forest Glass

The oldest hand-blown glass typical for countries above the Alps. It was produced in the Middle Ages in glassworks located in forests (hence its name) and is characteristically green-tinted due to imperfect purification of the materials. It also features random and tiny air bubbles.

  • Functionalism

An artistic, particularly architectural, style of the first third of the twentieth century. Its characteristics are stylistic restraint, simplicity and austerity. After 1930 these attributes were, for the first time in history, also implemented in Czech glass.

  • Glassblowing Mold

A mold created from high-quality wood used to shape molten glass blown into the mold by the glassblower. The mold is carefully produced according to a technical drawing and its basic shape is a hemisphere. Each wooden mold lasts only 50 glasses, then a new one must be hand-curved.

  • Glassblowing Pipe

A basic tool for the production of blown glass. The glassblower picks dips the end of the pipe in molten glass and blows it into a form or works it with other tools. The oldest documented glassblowing pipes were used by the Phoenicians, several thousand years before Christ.

  • Glassworks

An industrial establishment appointed for the production of glass. Its core is a glassmaking furnace which melts the materials necessary for glass production, as well as other buildings necessary for material storage and further production.

  • Glyptics

The art of engraving precious stones and semi-precious stones. One of the oldest artistic techniques that came to Czech lands thanks to the King and Emperor, Rudolph II. It was glyptics that began engraving pure glass, becoming the first glass cutters and engravers.

  • Guilloche

This is an identical procedure to pantograph, but there is only one needle used, producing simple geometric patterns which are continuous.

  • High Enamel

Although painting on glass was already common in ancient times, the technique of high enamel was created at the end of the eighteenth century and fully developed in subsequent years. Applying precious metals on glass had both the goal of making the glass more attractive and to hide possible imperfections in the materials. It enabled the production of large pieces with likely impurities in the glass.

  • Intaglio Engraving

A decorative technique where the design is engraved deeply into the glass, but appears to give the opposite effect.

  • Lead-free glass

A silica glass without the content of lead monoxide and therefore not harmful to the health of glassmakers as well as those later processing the glass and also more environmentally friendly. Lead-free glass is more brittle than leaded glass but the same decorative techniques can be used on it. CLARESCO Glass strictly uses only lead-free crystal for its products.

  • Lead Glass

Glass enhanced by the addition of lead monoxide that lends it properties desirable for further processing. Leaded glass is an English invention and is easy to work with, causing the glass to become softer, adding luster and making it perfectly suitable for cutting.

  • Lead Cystal

When lead oxide is added to the basic glass mixture, “lead crystal” is produced. The amount of lead oxide added, determines the classification of the crystal, as well as the strength and malleability of the crystal. It also enhances the brilliance and clarity of the glass. Semi-lead crystal (crystalline) contains approximately 8 -10% lead oxide, while the term “full lead crystal” is generally conceded to contain a minimum of 24% lead oxide. Lead oxide was initially introduced into crystal by the English approximately 250 years ago, due to the fact that it has a low melting temperature (1000 – 2000 degrees Celsius). Lead oxide also adds brilliance to the product when cut. It should also be noted that the most important reason for using lead oxide, is to soften the glass and, therefore, facilitate cutting and engraving on the item as a means of decoration. There are obviously disadvantages of having a softer glass product, i.e. it is more unstable during temperature changes; if softer, then it tends to chip or scratch much more easily.

  • Melting

The production of glass from glass mixtures, using various substances. The basis of the mixtures is silica sand, calcium oxide, sodium oxide and potassium oxide. The mixture is first ground and thoroughly blended, then liquefied at temperatures ranging from 1450–2000o C in glassmaking kilns. The ratio of the individual components determines both the physical and optical properties of glass.

  • Mold-Blown Glass

The shape of the finished article is achieved by glass being blown into a wooden mold. The mold may be used simply to shape the glass or to impress patterns upon it.

  • Murano

A series of islands located approximately a kilometer and a half from the Italian city of Venice. Murano is known for its traditional production of Venetian glass. Beginning in 1921, all local residents and producers were isolated there in order to keep the method of their glass production secret.

  • Pressed and Over Cut

 This refers to an item, generally produced in lead crystal, that has had initial base cuts pressed using a mould. The piece, however, must be finished with fine hand-cutting by a master cutter in the same manner as a completely mouth blown item.

  • Pantograph

This is a technique in which a clear glass is dipped and covered in a mixture of paraffin and bee’s wax. Then the glass is placed on a machine which has four needles surrounding the glass. An operator traces a stencil which is hooked to the machine and wherever the operator traced, so too, do the four needles and thus they remove the wax leaving a design. The glass is then taken and placed in an acid solution for anywhere from 7 to 40 minutes depending on the size of the piece and acid concentration. In this process only the areas uncovered by wax are eaten away (the design area) and the wax is removed later by hot water to be reused.

  • Relief Engraving

The removal of the background of a pattern on glass to leave the design embossed forward, as with a head on a coin.

  • Silica Sand

The basic material in glass production. Prior to melting, this mineral with a high content of silicon dioxide or other chemical admixtures must first be treated and cleaned. The first Czech glassworks were established in areas abundant with these materials.

  • Silk Screen Print

A graphic technique based on pressing ink through a screen template. Silk screen can be used to decorate many different materials, including glass. Silkscreen on glass is among the most technically challenging decorative techniques.

  • Stained-Glass

This is a glass mosaic set in lead frames used for glazing windows. This use became widely spread during Middle Ages, particularly in sacral architecture. In the Czech lands, the first stained glass windows were produced by the Benedictines.

  • Vitus Cathedral

The most famous and important sacral building in the Czech Republic. It was built upon the initiative of Czech King Charles IV and its construction continued until the twentieth century. It is particularly important for the history of Czech glass due to the monumental Mediaeval glass mosaic of the Last Judgment, composed from a million glass components. The cathedral is also decorated with outstanding stained-glass windows from the time of the First Republic, from the painter Alphonse Mucha, among others.

  • Technical Drawing

Practically all basic techniques from producing a wooden glassmaking mold to glass decoration are based on precise technical drawings.

  • Template

A paper tool used in glass production for various decorative purposes. A template helps the artist in sandblasting, painting and engraving, as well as cutting glass decors.

  • The First Republic

One of the happiest and most productive periods in the history of the Czech lands. It is dated by the formation of independent Czechoslovakia in 1918 and the beginning of WWII. The period was characterized by enormous economic and cultural growth, during which today’s Czech Republic belonged among the top-ten richest per capita countries in the world.

  • Venetian Glass

The expression Venetian glass (in Italian vetro veneziano) refers to the oldest glass manufacturing in Europe, dating to the second half of the first millennium in Italy. By the Middle Ages, Italian glass production was centered and isolated at the island of Murano, from where its glass products dominated the world until the fifteenth century.

Read more

  • Art Deco

A decorative, mainly architectural, style that spread in the Czech lands in the first third of the twentieth century. Unlike the more rigid functionalism, Art Deco put its emphasis on decorativeness and detail. The influence of Art Deco on Czech glass producers during this period is notably apparent.

  • Art Nouveau/Secession

An artistic style of the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth century. It’s particular characteristic is high decorativeness, ornamental elements and fluid curves. Attributes of this originally architectural style found their way into the Czech glass of the time. Czech painter Alphonse Mucha was among the leaders of Art Nouveau.

  • Baroque

An artistic style born in Italy at the end of the sixteenth century. In the following decades, it affected the culture of all Europe. Baroque is distinctly decorative, lavish and opulent. Czech glass had its heyday during the Baroque period, when it managed to overshadow even the then most famous Venetian glass.

  • Benedictines

The Order of St. Benedict, is the oldest order of Western Christianity. In Bohemia, it gained renown for its production of stained glass windows for churches and monasteries, beginning in the ninth century A.D.

  • Biedermeier

An artistic style of the first half of the nineteenth century, typical of the townsmen’s society that was on the rise at the time. The style emphasizes the love of home and cuteness, appropriateness and intimacy and its aesthetic corresponds with that. Particularly painting on glass was developing in this period.

  • Blank

The plain undecorated piece of glassware or crystal which will be further processed to be decorated, engraved, cut and polished.

  • Blown Glass

Glass produced using glassblowing pipes. The blower uses the end of the pipe to pick up molten glass, then blows the glass into a glassmaking form, where the object obtains its final shape.

  • Bohemian Crystal

Transparent glass that resembles natural quartz in appearance. It is greatly suited for various decorations and treatments. This glass first appeared in the Czech lands in the sixteenth century. Its popularity peaked at the turn of the seventeenth and eighteenth century, when it entirely overshadowed Venetian glass across Europe.

  • Barium Glass

When barium oxide is added to the basic glass mixture, the result is a product of superior clarity, strength and resiliency. Barium glass is primarily used in the production of those stemware lines which have a long, slender stem, or relatively thin-wall bowls.

  • Cameo Engraving

A figure or design is engraved in relief on to glass cased with one or more layers of colored glass. The engraved pattern is cut away the under layers provide a contrasting background.

  • Cased Glass

Glass with one or more colored layers. As the engraver cuts through the layers, the different colors are revealed. Various shades can be achieved by skillful control of the depth of cut.

  • CRYSTAL

 A much abused term which in the trade, simply refers to a clear colourless glass. The general materials used to produce crystal are fine silica sand, potash, and cullet (broken pieces of glass which are essential for the batch mixture). Other materials can be added to the basic batch mixture, such as oxides, i.e. lead oxide, gold oxide, barium etc.

  • CRYSTALITE

This is glassware which achieves the brilliance similar to lead crystal through the use of alternative minerals. It allows the glass to be more clear and brilliant as well as allow some forms of cutting and etching. Crystallite does not have a lead content.

  • CUTTING, ENGRAVING AND ETCHING

Cutting, engraving or etching on glass or crystal are three completely separate techniques of decorating glassware. The easiest way to distinguish between the three techniques is that cutting is a “wet process”, while engraving and etching are relatively “dry processes”. A diamond-carborundum wheel is used for cutting glass crystal and a continuous stream of water during the cutting process ensures the tiny glass particles are removed. Engraving is done generally with the use of a small copper wheel which produces a “shallow cutting” into the surface of the product. A small amount of abrasive fluid (not water) is used in order for the wheel to move more smoothly over the surface and scratch the design into the piece. Etching can be done with a laser or acid process.

  • COLOURED CRYSTAL

Colour is introduced into the glass by the addition of various oxides to the basic batch mixture. Gold oxide (as well as chrome oxide) is used to produce the ruby colour, this is the reason why ruby glass is generally more expensive. Iron oxide produces a green colour, cobalt oxide produces blue glass and the addition of uranium oxide will produce an amber or yellow colour. It should be noted that generally, colour is found in non-lead crystal products, but may also be used in glass which covers full lead crystal. MOULDS Both wooden and cast iron moulds are used in the production of crystal/glass products. Although, the wooden moulds are produced from hardwoods (Cherry and Beechwood), they must be replaced more often as they burn-out after time despite being immersed in water.

  • Definition of Crystal

Although nowadays, according to industrial standards, crystal in Europe is understood to be only leaded glass, the term crystal is used for all glass that is close to natural quartz in its unique physical properties and optical characteristics – high luster and transparency. Crystal can also be a lead-free glass.

  • Forest Glass

The oldest hand-blown glass typical for countries above the Alps. It was produced in the Middle Ages in glassworks located in forests (hence its name) and is characteristically green-tinted due to imperfect purification of the materials. It also features random and tiny air bubbles.

  • Functionalism

An artistic, particularly architectural, style of the first third of the twentieth century. Its characteristics are stylistic restraint, simplicity and austerity. After 1930 these attributes were, for the first time in history, also implemented in Czech glass.

  • Glassblowing Mold

A mold created from high-quality wood used to shape molten glass blown into the mold by the glassblower. The mold is carefully produced according to a technical drawing and its basic shape is a hemisphere. Each wooden mold lasts only 50 glasses, then a new one must be hand-curved.

  • Glassblowing Pipe

A basic tool for the production of blown glass. The glassblower picks dips the end of the pipe in molten glass and blows it into a form or works it with other tools. The oldest documented glassblowing pipes were used by the Phoenicians, several thousand years before Christ.

  • Glassworks

An industrial establishment appointed for the production of glass. Its core is a glassmaking furnace which melts the materials necessary for glass production, as well as other buildings necessary for material storage and further production.

  • Glyptics

The art of engraving precious stones and semi-precious stones. One of the oldest artistic techniques that came to Czech lands thanks to the King and Emperor, Rudolph II. It was glyptics that began engraving pure glass, becoming the first glass cutters and engravers.

  • Guilloche

This is an identical procedure to pantograph, but there is only one needle used, producing simple geometric patterns which are continuous.

  • High Enamel

Although painting on glass was already common in ancient times, the technique of high enamel was created at the end of the eighteenth century and fully developed in subsequent years. Applying precious metals on glass had both the goal of making the glass more attractive and to hide possible imperfections in the materials. It enabled the production of large pieces with likely impurities in the glass.

  • Intaglio Engraving

A decorative technique where the design is engraved deeply into the glass, but appears to give the opposite effect.

  • Lead-free glass

A silica glass without the content of lead monoxide and therefore not harmful to the health of glassmakers as well as those later processing the glass and also more environmentally friendly. Lead-free glass is more brittle than leaded glass but the same decorative techniques can be used on it. CLARESCO Glass strictly uses only lead-free crystal for its products.

  • Lead Glass

Glass enhanced by the addition of lead monoxide that lends it properties desirable for further processing. Leaded glass is an English invention and is easy to work with, causing the glass to become softer, adding luster and making it perfectly suitable for cutting.

  • Lead Cystal

When lead oxide is added to the basic glass mixture, “lead crystal” is produced. The amount of lead oxide added, determines the classification of the crystal, as well as the strength and malleability of the crystal. It also enhances the brilliance and clarity of the glass. Semi-lead crystal (crystalline) contains approximately 8 -10% lead oxide, while the term “full lead crystal” is generally conceded to contain a minimum of 24% lead oxide. Lead oxide was initially introduced into crystal by the English approximately 250 years ago, due to the fact that it has a low melting temperature (1000 – 2000 degrees Celsius). Lead oxide also adds brilliance to the product when cut. It should also be noted that the most important reason for using lead oxide, is to soften the glass and, therefore, facilitate cutting and engraving on the item as a means of decoration. There are obviously disadvantages of having a softer glass product, i.e. it is more unstable during temperature changes; if softer, then it tends to chip or scratch much more easily.

  • Melting

The production of glass from glass mixtures, using various substances. The basis of the mixtures is silica sand, calcium oxide, sodium oxide and potassium oxide. The mixture is first ground and thoroughly blended, then liquefied at temperatures ranging from 1450–2000o C in glassmaking kilns. The ratio of the individual components determines both the physical and optical properties of glass.

  • Mold-Blown Glass

The shape of the finished article is achieved by glass being blown into a wooden mold. The mold may be used simply to shape the glass or to impress patterns upon it.

  • Murano

A series of islands located approximately a kilometer and a half from the Italian city of Venice. Murano is known for its traditional production of Venetian glass. Beginning in 1921, all local residents and producers were isolated there in order to keep the method of their glass production secret.

  • Pressed and Over Cut

 This refers to an item, generally produced in lead crystal, that has had initial base cuts pressed using a mould. The piece, however, must be finished with fine hand-cutting by a master cutter in the same manner as a completely mouth blown item.

  • Pantograph

This is a technique in which a clear glass is dipped and covered in a mixture of paraffin and bee’s wax. Then the glass is placed on a machine which has four needles surrounding the glass. An operator traces a stencil which is hooked to the machine and wherever the operator traced, so too, do the four needles and thus they remove the wax leaving a design. The glass is then taken and placed in an acid solution for anywhere from 7 to 40 minutes depending on the size of the piece and acid concentration. In this process only the areas uncovered by wax are eaten away (the design area) and the wax is removed later by hot water to be reused.

  • Relief Engraving

The removal of the background of a pattern on glass to leave the design embossed forward, as with a head on a coin.

  • Silica Sand

The basic material in glass production. Prior to melting, this mineral with a high content of silicon dioxide or other chemical admixtures must first be treated and cleaned. The first Czech glassworks were established in areas abundant with these materials.

  • Silk Screen Print

A graphic technique based on pressing ink through a screen template. Silk screen can be used to decorate many different materials, including glass. Silkscreen on glass is among the most technically challenging decorative techniques.

  • Stained-Glass

This is a glass mosaic set in lead frames used for glazing windows. This use became widely spread during Middle Ages, particularly in sacral architecture. In the Czech lands, the first stained glass windows were produced by the Benedictines.

  • Vitus Cathedral

The most famous and important sacral building in the Czech Republic. It was built upon the initiative of Czech King Charles IV and its construction continued until the twentieth century. It is particularly important for the history of Czech glass due to the monumental Mediaeval glass mosaic of the Last Judgment, composed from a million glass components. The cathedral is also decorated with outstanding stained-glass windows from the time of the First Republic, from the painter Alphonse Mucha, among others.

  • Technical Drawing

Practically all basic techniques from producing a wooden glassmaking mold to glass decoration are based on precise technical drawings.

  • Template

A paper tool used in glass production for various decorative purposes. A template helps the artist in sandblasting, painting and engraving, as well as cutting glass decors.

  • The First Republic

One of the happiest and most productive periods in the history of the Czech lands. It is dated by the formation of independent Czechoslovakia in 1918 and the beginning of WWII. The period was characterized by enormous economic and cultural growth, during which today’s Czech Republic belonged among the top-ten richest per capita countries in the world.

  • Venetian Glass

The expression Venetian glass (in Italian vetro veneziano) refers to the oldest glass manufacturing in Europe, dating to the second half of the first millennium in Italy. By the Middle Ages, Italian glass production was centered and isolated at the island of Murano, from where its glass products dominated the world until the fifteenth century.

Read more


History of Czech Glass

Posted by Radka Volhejnova on

 The oldest glass products come from ancient Egypt.  The very first technology of glassmaking was the winding of the glass threads on a form made from clay.  The oldest blown glass is believed to be made in ancient Fenicia and Greece. While the early Egyptian glass was imperfect due to the materials used (it was usually melted from fritted (porous) glass), ancient glass was already fairly clear.  In 3rd and 2nd century B.C., the glass making knowledge was spread throughout the Mediterranean.   Typical products made in ancient times were decanters, carafes, bottles and simple goblets. 

  The oldest glass findings (bracelets, beads) in Czech countries were probably imported from Celtic regions, at approximately the 3rd century B.C.  It is possible that some beads from the Great Moravia time period were of local origin.  Written documents about knowledge of glass making in Czech countries come from the 12th century. The oldest glassworks are found in archaeological and written findings of the 13th century.

Glass in the Czech Region:

In the Middle Ages, the production of glass grew as never before.  Glassworks spread greatly at the borders of the country using the richness of the forests  (as wood was needed to heat the glass furnaces and for the production of potassium).  The richness of the community’s people also assisted in the growth of glassmaking in Czech countries. Even though the glass products were expensive, they were found in both the upper and middle class households.   In the towns populated in the Middle Age, there were many archaeological findings of glass to support this.

The important role in the evolution of glassmaking was played by the Czech glassmaking families who influenced the technology progress in all central Europe.  The melting of glass was a secret passed on from father to the eldest son and that is why tradition was the key factor for the growth and evolution. The biggest contributions made by the Czech glassmakers were for example, the melting of blue cobalt glass by the Schurer family in Northern Bohemia in the 16th century, the discovery of Czech crystal at Muller Glassworks in Šumava region and the discovery of glaze and Hyalite glass by Mr. B. Egermann in the 1st half of the 19th century.

Gothic glass had elements, which characterized the Czech production for the next few centuries.  Technology was perfected through the ages, although the old traditions were continued and adjusted according to new times.  In this way, a new art style evolved called by specialized literature “Czech Glass”.

  The Czech Gothic Glass was made from greenish glass mass called “Forest Glass”. In contrast to the German glass, which was dark green, the Czech glass was light green, closer to the later clear color crystal of later years.  At the time, this type of glass was very popular and huge amounts of glass were exported in the 14th century to not only Germany, but also France and Flanders.  The Czech glass was characterized by the slender flutes and bulbous cups and decorated by molted-on glass spiral threads and especially pearl shapes.  These decorative techniques were invented in the Near East and spread to Central Europe at the 13th century thanks to the Crusades.  These techniques were adopted by the Czech glassmakers but were customized to the Czech characteristic decorations.

 At Renaissance, approximately mid 16th century in the Czech countries, Venetian style enamel painting appeared (in Novohradske hory region).  This technique was quickly modified by Czech glassmakers to a more robust decoration, in contrast to the fine and delicate Venetian style.  Very often, the Coat of Arms motif, figural scenes from daily life, and paintings depicting rulers and monarchs appeared. The enamel painting spread quickly not only due to the many possibilities of decorating but this technique covered small defects in the glass.  In this way the glassmakers could also use the second quality glass.  For this particular reason, Czech glass painting was influenced for the centuries to come.  

  Except for the enamel painting, much Renaissance glass made from greenish glass mass was decorated by various molted-on techniques. 

  The epoch of the emperor Rudolf II influenced the art of the Czech countries very strongly because he resided in Prague. At the end of the 16th century and beginning of the 17th century, important attempts were made at glass engraving.   The pioneer of this glass engraving was Casper Lehmann who was originally a diamond cutter.  He was the first to create goblets decorated with rich engravings. This technique predetermined the later Czech Baroque production. 

  After the Thirty Year War, in Czech countries, clear glass called Czech Crystal began to be melted. The character of this glass corresponded to the Baroque art style. The Czech Crystal became a specialty and the demand at the beginning of the 18th century was so large that the Czechs became the largest exporters of crystal in the world. At this time, many new glass export companies were founded and they had affiliations in many important ports, not only in Europe but in Asia and South America also.

  Czech engraved Baroque glass is defined by the perfection of the glass mass and also by delicate masterful engravings. At the beginning, this masterful work was exclusive for the Emperors and Kings, but soon after, many engraving factories were established around the Czech countries and produced not only luxury pieces for the upper class but also commercial glass for the middle class.  The most popular motifs were allegorical and figural scenes, texts, names, monograms and of course, dates. The advance of technology of Czech glass is confirmed by various marginal productions that did not influence the style, but are remarkable by its execution, for example double walled glasses.

  At the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century, the painting art was influenced by Rococo and Classicism, mostly in the country of origin – France – but was also obvious in Europe. In Czech countries, the glassmaking traditions were very strong and therefore the influence was slower.

  The production of the typical Baroque engraved glass decreased at the second half of the 18th century and some of the glassworks experienced difficulty selling the glass.  In some regions, the production returned to enamel painting especially glass for less wealthy people and ordinary citizens.  The crisis peaked at the time of the Napoleonic Wars. The important role among the glassworks was kept by Harrachov glassworks in Nový Svět in Krkonoše. Somewhere between 1860 and 1869, the production of milk (opaline) glass started and made the glassworks famous around the world.

  After the Napoleonic Wars ended, the Czech market was overtaken by English cut glass, which the Czech glassmakers attempted to imitate for a short time.  The first Czech to make the English cut glass was Pavel Meyr from Šumava.  These foreign patterns were soon pushed from the market by the strength of the old traditions.  Since the 1820s, the Czech glass production began to rise.  In the first half of the 19th century, in the Novy Bor area, lived Bedrich Egermann, the “magician“ of glass production.  While Europe was trying to imitate the English cut glass, Egermann was experimenting with colored glass masses.  He invented a new art style and opened new views on glass as an artifact.  Thanks to him, it was possible to overcome age-old opinions on the style of glass production coming from clear glass only. Egermann originated the idea of producing opaque colored glass masses and decorating with glaze. These techniques inspired the glass production in the second half of the 19th century and most importantly, art nouveau and modern art mainstreams in the 20th century.

  Innovations of technology were brought not only by B. Egermann but also by many other Czech glassworks.  Their productions enriched not only the Czech markets but also all other markets around the world.  Czech glass once again, became very popular in the world markets.  Compared to glass making industries which developed in the second half of the 19th century in other countries, countries which did not have such a long glass making tradition, the Czech glassmakers were always able to maintain their top position. 

  For Czech glass of the second half of the 19th century, inspiration by the Orient and imitation of various historical styles is typical.  The new principles of art nouveau style became popular thanks to the Czech glassmakers.    

The Oldest Glassworks

 From very brief mentions in written documents from pre-Hussite times (1350 to 1420) we know of about 21 glassworks (11 in Bohemia, 8 in Silesia, 3 in Moravia) although according to archaeological finds of Gothic glass made in Czech countries, there must have been many more.

  Glassworks, whether from the Middle Ages, Renaissance or Gothic times, could only be found in the deep forest. Around the glassworks sometimes, grew a small village usually located by a stream in the valley.  Glassworks not only used to be the center of glassmaking but also independent economic bodies having its own agriculture and other kinds of productions.

  The center of Bohemian was the oldest colonized area and since pre-historic times, the population was very dense.  Therefore there were not enough forests and that is why this area was not suitable to build glassworks.  Most of the glassworks were established in the pre-border areas, which had dense forests and steep hills, both in the North and South areas.

  Glassworks needed huge amounts of wood, not only to heat the ovens but also to produce potassium,  the important ingredient needed in melting the glass.  According to old documents, to obtain one kilogram of potassium, several tenths of kilograms of good beech wood was needed.  It usually did not take much time to chop all the wood in the glassworks neighborhood.  As soon the wood area became too far away for the wood to be carried to the glassworks, the glassworks instead moved to the wood area.  For this reason, most of the Middle Age glassworks did not last long.  In some regions during the 18th and 19th century, there was a prohibition of chopping trees for the use of glassworks as the manorial nobility wanted to preserve the wood for forestry.

  Only from sporadic mentions and without other details, we know that in the 14th and 15th century, there were glassworks in the Šumava region near the villages Sklenářova Lhota, Skláře u Hořic, Pasečna, Prachatice, then in Eastern and Northern Bohemia in Modava, Doubice, Chřibská, Sklenářice u Vysokého, Dolní Krupá and Mnichovo Hradiště, and also in Českomoravská vrchovina in the villages Skelné u Křižanova, Skelné u Nového Města na Moravě, Skelné u Svitav and Jindřichův Hradec.

  Glassworks Chřibská

  Glassworks Chřibská, whose logo shows the date 1414, is considered to be the oldest glassworks in the world and was operated without interruption for almost six centuries. The historical fact is that the oldest preserved document mentioning the glassworks bears no date. It is assumed that the document originated during the lifetime of Berka of Dubá, one of the most powerful North Bohemian feudal lords, sometime between 1408 and 1428. Another record, the Estate Rolls entry from 1457 mentioned the glassworks, but without any further details.

  The establishment date 1414 is derived from the testimony of the reeve of Chřibská glass master Friedrich, who in 1514 sold this glassworks with the farmyard, sawmill and flour mill, and with all freedom and rights with which it was endowed one hundred years ago. From  this testimony this particular date is derived, even though from some of the latest archaeological finds from around the glassworks, we can estimate that the glassworks may have already stood there at the end of the 14th century.

The Middle Ages

  The oldest written document about a stained glass window in Bohemia is from 1162. In that year, John the Third, bishop of Prague, ordered two stained glass windows with biblical scenes. There are many reports about stained glass windows from the following years. These documents testify to the fact that this kind of art spread greatly in medieval Bohemia.

 Except for stained glass windows, the glazing of windows with circular glass panes fastened by lead stripes (or connected with lead stripes) expanded in medieval Bohemia. These glass panes, also known as “see-through circles” in period documents, represented a substantial part of the production of glassworks of that time. In 1451 Cardinal Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini (later Pope Pius the Second) wrote that no other country in Europe has so many windows glazed by circular glass panes or stained glass as in Bohemia, where you could find glazed windows even in small towns and villages.

  New inspirations to European handicrafts were brought by the Crusades in the 13th century. Because of it, the technical and technological improvements followed. Medieval glassworks did not produce merely greenish, so-called “Forest Glass”, but also clear glass (unlike the other central-European countries). Bohemian medieval glassmakers were also able to color the glass with various metal oxides – blue with cobalt, red with copper, light green with iron. Colored glass mass was used for decorative purposes mainly – knobs, ribs and also stained glass panes were made from it.

  The assortment of Gothic glass was relatively wide. Except for circular glass panes, glass beads and pearls were produced. A stimulus to their production was given by the Dominican order, who pushed the believers to use rosaries. Rosary beads were made mostly in Šumava region, where this tradition persevered until the 18th century. After 1430 the rosary beads (generally called “paters” – as the name was derived from the first words of the Lord’s prayer, Pater noster) were exported via Nuremberg to the whole Europe.

  Medieval doctors, pharmacists, charlatans and alchemists required various specially shaped glass vessels. Although the distillation crucibles, flasks and other vessels of that time have not been preserved, they attained considerable fame in Central Europe. Medical books written in those times, explicitly preferred Bohemian glasses to any other.

  In the assortment of glass, production of drinking glass prevailed (goblets, cups, tumblers, bottles etc…). The tall, slender, flute-shaped glass of the so-called “Bohemian type” can be considered the most typical product of Czech Gothic glassmaking. Also very often, the glass with a bowl-shaped cup and molted-on, pearl-like drops was produced. In the 13th century, another vessel called “Kutrolf”  became very popular in Europe. It was a special bottle with a neck plated with two, three or four tubes. Even though there existed many different shapes of gothic glass, they all were, by their shape and decoration, characteristic for single homogeneous mainstream. This gives evidence that the production of single glassworks, which were very often far away from each other, was not isolated. The glassmakers communicated and were well informed by the glass merchants they worked with.

The so-called Bohemian type glass

 Is a slender, tall glass (40-60cm), flute or club-shaped, made from greenish Forest glass, decorated with molten-on glass pearls, zigzag glass threads and many other decoration techniques. It was made from the second half of the 14th century until the second half of the 15th century. It is represented far more frequently in the findings of the Bohemian regions than in the other European countries. Accordingly to old paintings and archaeological finds, it was in standard use not only for the ruler’s court and the tables of the noblemen, but also for burgess households (archaeological finds in Plzeň, Ústí, Praha, Most, Pardubice and many other towns).

  The origin of the shape and decoration of this cup links with the Palestinian art of the 13th century. It can be assumed that it was the participants of the Crusades that made their acquaintance and mediated their style to Central Europe. It is even possible that some Jewish glassmakers left Palestine with Crusaders (because of the invasion of  the Saracens) and brought pearl-like decorations to Bohemia.

  The assumption of Palestinian inspiration is supported by the fact that the oldest glasses of Bohemian type were found on the sites which had some relation to the order of Teutonic Knights.

The Forest Glass

  The Forest Glass is a name for the greenish glass mass used in Middle Ages. Metal oxides, present in glass sand, cause this color and medieval glassmakers were not able to get rid of it. Because the quality of glass sand varied depending on the location, the colors of glass mass varied greatly in medieval Europe.

  German sands contain a high percentage of iron admixtures (and also copper and chromium oxides). That is why the German medieval glass mass was of a greener color. In later times, the glass mass used to be artificially colored so that the final color was dark green. These dark green glasses were very popular in Germany at the time.

  The Czech glass was much different though. Czech glass sands are incomparably cleaner and  Czech glassworks used better technology in melting the glass mass. The Czech glass had a greenish tinge and sometimes was rather clear (with a light-gray tinge). Accordingly to the color of the glass mass it is possible to determine the origin of products. This relatively clear glass mass served as a rudiment of later invented clear crystal.

  The medieval glass mass was melted with high content of admixtures, which “softened” the glass and also made it “longer”. The definition “longer glass” means that the glass cooled down very slowly and it was possible to work with it for a longer time without re-heating it. The glass could be decorated with many sophisticated decorative techniques (for example molted-on glass pearls).

  Analysis of the glass mass used at the time show, that potassium-calcium raw material was used in medieval Bohemia, unlike the Mediterranean glass which used to be made from sodium-calcium raw material. This fact augured the later invention of “Czech crystal” in Baroque (as the main substance of “Czech crystal” is potassium-calcium raw material).

 The Renaissance

Renaissance was not only a new art style, but also a new peoples’ attitude to life, mundane and spiritual matters. It was a Renaissance, which happened to be an important milestone of European glass making both from a technological and an artistic point of view. Step by step, the new opinion of glass, its design and use was formed.

  The revolutionary change was brought by enamel-paint which was  invented in Venetia. Even the Venetian glassworks kept the way of this production secret (any glassmaker who would try to escape from the glassworks and reveal their secrets would be punished by the death sentence). In spite of that, the technique of enamel painting soon got into Bohemia. The beginning is not very clear. Accordingly to one version, this technique appears for the first time in Novohradské hory region (in Rožmberská huť pod Vilémovou horou) and the knowledge was brought there by one of the Venetian glass masters. Accordingly to other documents, this technique is linked with the glassworks that belonged to Pavel Schurrer, who in 1530 established a glassworks in Falknov (today’s Kytlice). Another document declares, that enamel-painted glass used to be produced in Northern Bohemia at Sloup estate. This technique begun very popular and spread all over Bohemia during the second half of the 16th century.

  A typical product of  Czech Renaissance painted glass was the so-called “welcome beaker”, capable of holding several liters and decorated with enamel-paint, Coat of Arms etc.  In addition, small cups decorated with figural, less often floral compositions were made.

  The Renaissance gave rise to a number of new shapes such as tankards, jugs, rectangular bottles and various goblets. Because of the playfulness of the Renaissance, the glassworks produced various funny vessels – beakers with threaded-on tinkling rings, vessels from which it was possible to drink only with a straw or even beakers from which it was impossible to drink from at all since the liquid spilled out onto the drinker through a hole in the glass.

  The most important novelty was the use of colored glass mass. From 1570,  blue cobalt glass was popular in the North Bohemia Schurer glassworks, especially in the Owl Glassworks near Nejdek. The popularity of blue cobalt glass (exceptionally decorated with enamel-paint) lasted until the beginning of the Thirty Year War.

 The Baroque

 The stylistic and art basis of Baroque can already be sought in the mannerism of the court art of the epoch of  Emperor Rudolph II. As a style of art, it was closely linked with reformation ideology, however, the Baroque asserted itself in Central Europe only as late as in the second half of the 17th century, after the end of The Thirty Year War and victory of Catholicism, represented by the Hapsburg dynasty.

  In the beginning of the 18th century, the shape of the goblets changed. The actual cup was taller, more-like conical shaped, while the foot was shorter, and very often decorated with facet cut (cutting of flat surfaces – facets). Very often, the goblets were with lids (so-called “Balustroid goblet style” ) and appeared for the first time in Sumava region in south-western Bohemia. The diamond engraving made it possible. The line was very delicate and deep which made the composition look more plastic.

  Glass cutting and engraving was concentrated in a few areas. The biggest were located in North Bohemia near Česká Lípa in demesnes Sloup, Libchava, Česká Kamenice, others were below Jizerské Hory mountains near Jablonec nad Nisou and the third center was in Silesia.

 The Rococo and the Classicism


In the second half of the 18th century, the production of glass in Bohemia dropped steeply. The Rococo feel, unlike Baroque, was not splendor and sumptuous, so only a few masters continued this tradition. One of the best glass cutters and engravers of those times was the Lechner family in the estate on Nové Hrady in southern Bohemia..

  A specific way of development in the manufacturing of glass can be observed around Jablonec nad Nisou, where so-called “Turnov composition“ was invented in 1711 – glass mass imitating precious stones in appearance. It was an ideal material for cutting and was later used for imitation of precious stones. This production established a very famous tradition of manufacturing imitations of costly jewelry in Jablonec nad Nisou. Cut glass pieces were also used in another famous branch – the manufacturing of chandeliers. Glass cutting (from which hundreds of families lived on) dispersed from the workshops to the cottages. The household producers had their grinders at home and brought the finished pieces to the agent from whom they received wages. This way of manufacturing was very progressive and provided organizational backup for the high volume of production and fair wages.

  In the second half of the 18th century, the decorating with enamel paints revived again. It was not however, intended for the wealthy strata of population, but for the widest circle of customers both from rural and urban areas. For many rich farmers, the possession of glass was a matter of prestige. In Šumava regions, decorated snuff bottles and also painted brandy bottles were very popular.

  The most famous glassworks of those times was the Harrachov glassworks in Nový Svět in Krkonoše Mountains. From the sixties of the 18th century, this glassworks produced milk (opaline) glass, which was very popular at those times.  Napoleonic wars and the following blockade severely damaged the Bohemian glass industry.. Only a few workshops surpassed the average, primarily in the places where the glyptic tradition remained alive. Together with the Harrachov glassworks in Nový Svět, the enterprise in Karlovy Vary also attained one of the foremost places in glass engraving and glass cutting, who had regular customers in the visitors to this health resort of world reputation (for this time, the beautifully engraved spa remembrance cups are characteristic).

  After the defeat of Napoleonic France, for a short period of time, the English cut dominated on the European markets.  The classicist diamond cut in combination with engraved decoration soon developed into an original Bohemian style, which however, did not last long. While European glassworks were imitating the English cut, in Bohemia a new phase of glassmaking began, opening new ways to modern glass art – applications of new colored glass masses, which enabled the evolution of completely new decorating techniques (cased glass, production of matt glass, etc…).

Bedřich Egermann

  He was born on April 5th, 1777 and  died January 1st, 1864. He apprenticed in the trade of porcelain painter in Meissen. After his return to Bohemia, he became a glass painter. He established a studio in Polevsko, famous for its finely painted decorations on matt opaque glass. He was not only an excellent technologist and a pioneer of new types of glass masses, but also an artist breaking classicist lines, giving them, in the spirit of the Empire predilection for minerals, a prismatic palette and a quite different style.

  In 1820, already  a wealthy entrepreneur, Egermann settled in Nový Bor,(Haida) where he began experimenting with red and yellow glazes and was the first one in the world to manufacture.  F. Egermann acquired a production privilege (patent) for red glaze and it soon appeared in many other glassworks not only in Bohemia, but quickly spread literally on all continents.

Egermann acquired even greater fame with his next discovery of marble glass, imitating semi-precious stones called lythialin. He obtained a privilege for the manufacture  of lithyalin in 1828, but in spite of that,  lithyalin glass was soon produced in many other glassworks around the country. Products from marble glass used to be thick-walled and decorated with cut.

 Art Nouveau

  French artist E. Gallé made the first attempts of the production in this new style already in the eighties of the 19th century. Several years later, the same tendencies asserted themselves in the work of one of the most significant personalities of Art Nouveau glassmaking, L.C. Tiffany, living and working in USA. They were both using metallic luster, iridescent elements, hot-shaped decors from wound and combed fibers. This style was typical for the later Art-Nouveau glassmaking.

Production of Art-Nouveau glass required good technical equipment and skilled glass masters. Bohemian glassworks were well prepared and the Bohemian Art-Nouveau glass soon ranked among the best in the world.

  The glassworks J. Loetz in Klášterecký Mlýn, owned by King Max von Spaun, occupied the leading position. The success of this glassworks was not incidental. As early as in the nineties of the 19th century, they produced iridized glass, for which they were awarded numerous prizes (at the exhibition in Vienna in 1890 and in Chicago in 1893). Outstanding works were also produced by the glassworks of Adolfov near Vimperk, Dvory near Karlovy Vary, Harrachov, Košťany and Polubný similarly is the refineries in Nový Bor and Jablonec nad Nisou.

Industrial Expansion in the Second Half of the 19th Century and in the First Half of the 20th Century

In the 1870’s this region witnessed the introduction of the railroad, which made the transportation of coal – amongst other goods – so convenient. Subsequently coal began to be gasified, in which form it was used to heat glass furnaces. New technologies were soon adopted by dynamic businessmen who established a network of new glassworks to meet the needs of local glass refiners. This initiated a grand expansion of glassworks’ basic industries, along with the establishment of the glassworks in the Lusatian Mountains and their foothills which did not stop until the economic crisis of the 1930’s, followed by the period of the Second World War. Following the Second World War, many of these factories were not reopened.

Four new glassworks, usually named after their owners’ wives, were established in Falknov-Kytlice: ‘Augusta’ Glassworks in 1874, ‘Marie’ Glassworks and ‘Tereza’ Glassworks in 1893, and ‘Rudolf’ Glassworks in 1900. None of them are in existence anymore. Other glassworks were built in Kamenický Šenov: ‘Rückl’ Glassworks, established in 1886 and known today as Severosklo a.s.; the contemporary glassworks run by the Jílek Brothers, which was originally put into operation in 1905; and the glassworks in Prácheň near Kamenický Šenov in 1908. The first glass factory erected in Nový Bor in 1874 was called ‘Helena’; however, this factory does not exist any longer too. Another factory was known as the School Glassworks, operated by a specialised school of glass making and commissioned in 1910. Nowadays, it serves the needs of the same school again. In 1913, Flora Glassworks was built. Today it is owned by the limited liability company, Egermann. In 1893 a glass factory owned by the Rückl company was founded in Skalice, near Česká Lípa. This factory is still in operation. In Polevsko, two glassworks were erected: the first, ‘Anna’, in 1900 (which was later closed down); and the other, ‘Klára’, in 1907. In 1872, a glassworks called ‘Tereza’ was built in Svor (it is currently out of operation), followed by the Anna Glassworks opened in Dolní Prysk in 1907. The latter is owned by the joint-stock company, Preciosa. Of 18 glassworks established between the 1870’s and 1930’s, only nine have survived to see the year 2000, including the glassworks in Horní Chřibská which closed in 2012.

Of key significance for the success of Bohemian Art-Nouveau glass was the connection of production with the leading artists, especially the close cooperation with the Viennese school of arts and crafts. Close cooperation was also established with companies J.and L. Lobmeyr and Bakalowitz and Sons. The Viennese Art-Nouveau attained an original expression of its own – it was cultured, moderated in form and colors, and tented to develop ornaments in a plane. It was this very concept that impressed to Bohemian Art-Nouveau glass, its inimitable character, for which it was appreciated, together with the technical quality of its execution, all over the world.

  The wave of Art-Nouveau enthusiasm from the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century soon began to subside. The new trends appeared in the art, concentrating on simpler and more practical designs. In spite of that the Art-Nouveau glass sold well until the First World War, which brought an end to this art style. After the end of the First World War, some principles of the Art-Nouveau style developed into the new artistic style Art-Deco, which however, never reached the success and popularity of older Art-Nouveau style.

The Present times.

The local glass making industry suffered another bad blow after the Second World War due to the expulsion of the German population that included a substantial number of qualified craftsmen and skilled laborers. Mountain glassworks – traditional centers of domestic refiners – were nearly depopulated. Attempts to renew their prosperity failed, and the original glass producing villages were turned into recreational and tourist sites. After the electoral victory of the Communist Party in 1948, the process of nationalisation merged all functional glass factories into these so-called nationally-owned companies: Borské sklo in Nový Bor and Lustry in Kamnický Šenov.

The oldest glass making school in Europe

The tradition of glass making schools in the Czech Republic has lasted for almost one hundred and fifty years and they have been of great importance both for glass making and for art culture. The whole system of secondary art technical schools, which not just glass making but also jewel, ceramics, fabric and graphic making schools belong to, is very unique and after the Czech republic is accepted by the Europe Union, it can be one of the most significant contributions to its development. The largest concentration of these school is in the capital city Prague and in the Liberec region,(Novy Bor and Zelezny Brod) where there are three secondary art glass making schools, one glass making school and one glass making college. The main task of all these schools is to educate skilled glass maker and foremen, professional glass technicians and technologists, production designers, company managers and entrepreneurs, but some school leavers study at technical and especially art universities. Then they become glass artists and teachers and also painters, sculptors and restorers.

The first school leavers studied at the College of Applied Arts in Vienna in the 1870s already and others followed them. In the 1920s and 1930s some of them attended the College of Applied Arts in Prague, which has educated future glass artists in special glass studios for over eighty years.

Kamenicky Senov was the Sunday school for drawing, which was founded for local school pupils, glass apprentices and makers in 1839. The glass making school in Novy Bor was established in 1856 as local producer wished it to ensure professional preparation of local glass painter and engraver and to influence the art, craft and technical level of glass making by school principals and teachers. Since the middle of the 19th century a high level of Bohemian glass making has been maintained by leavers of this school, too.

Till the end of the 1870s students learnt only drawing and modeling at this school; they learnt glass handicraft in home workshops. Since the beginning of the 1980s they have learnt glass painting, engraving and later glass cutting and sandblasting at school. To the posts of school principals and teachers graduates from colleges of applied arts have been appointed, skilled glass painters, engravers and cutters have led their students in school workshops. The good results of the school of Kamenicky Senov accelerated the decision to found a similar school in Nový Bor too (1870). The experiences of both schools were used then by founders of glass making schools in Zwiesel (1904) and Zelezny Brod (1920).

Until the end of 1961 the school was a subsidiary of the glass making school in Nový Bor. After that it became independent. It began by traditional glass painting and cutting sections and a new section of light creating and construction. In 1969 the glass engraving section was founded. These are the four sections the school consists of at present and remarkable results are achieved. The school declares itself as a successor of Bohemian glass making and it has existed for one hundred and fifty years. They collaborate with the company Preciosa-Lustry, Brother Jilek’s Glassworks and Peter Rath’s Studio in Kamenicky Senov, with Moser’s Glassworks in Carlsbad and other companies, they participate in International Symposiums of Engraved Glass in Kamenicky Senov and exhibits in this country and abroad.

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History of Czech Glass

Posted by Radka Volhejnova on

 The oldest glass products come from ancient Egypt.  The very first technology of glassmaking was the winding of the glass threads on a form made from clay.  The oldest blown glass is believed to be made in ancient Fenicia and Greece. While the early Egyptian glass was imperfect due to the materials used (it was usually melted from fritted (porous) glass), ancient glass was already fairly clear.  In 3rd and 2nd century B.C., the glass making knowledge was spread throughout the Mediterranean.   Typical products made in ancient times were decanters, carafes, bottles and simple goblets. 

  The oldest glass findings (bracelets, beads) in Czech countries were probably imported from Celtic regions, at approximately the 3rd century B.C.  It is possible that some beads from the Great Moravia time period were of local origin.  Written documents about knowledge of glass making in Czech countries come from the 12th century. The oldest glassworks are found in archaeological and written findings of the 13th century.

Glass in the Czech Region:

In the Middle Ages, the production of glass grew as never before.  Glassworks spread greatly at the borders of the country using the richness of the forests  (as wood was needed to heat the glass furnaces and for the production of potassium).  The richness of the community’s people also assisted in the growth of glassmaking in Czech countries. Even though the glass products were expensive, they were found in both the upper and middle class households.   In the towns populated in the Middle Age, there were many archaeological findings of glass to support this.

The important role in the evolution of glassmaking was played by the Czech glassmaking families who influenced the technology progress in all central Europe.  The melting of glass was a secret passed on from father to the eldest son and that is why tradition was the key factor for the growth and evolution. The biggest contributions made by the Czech glassmakers were for example, the melting of blue cobalt glass by the Schurer family in Northern Bohemia in the 16th century, the discovery of Czech crystal at Muller Glassworks in Šumava region and the discovery of glaze and Hyalite glass by Mr. B. Egermann in the 1st half of the 19th century.

Gothic glass had elements, which characterized the Czech production for the next few centuries.  Technology was perfected through the ages, although the old traditions were continued and adjusted according to new times.  In this way, a new art style evolved called by specialized literature “Czech Glass”.

  The Czech Gothic Glass was made from greenish glass mass called “Forest Glass”. In contrast to the German glass, which was dark green, the Czech glass was light green, closer to the later clear color crystal of later years.  At the time, this type of glass was very popular and huge amounts of glass were exported in the 14th century to not only Germany, but also France and Flanders.  The Czech glass was characterized by the slender flutes and bulbous cups and decorated by molted-on glass spiral threads and especially pearl shapes.  These decorative techniques were invented in the Near East and spread to Central Europe at the 13th century thanks to the Crusades.  These techniques were adopted by the Czech glassmakers but were customized to the Czech characteristic decorations.

 At Renaissance, approximately mid 16th century in the Czech countries, Venetian style enamel painting appeared (in Novohradske hory region).  This technique was quickly modified by Czech glassmakers to a more robust decoration, in contrast to the fine and delicate Venetian style.  Very often, the Coat of Arms motif, figural scenes from daily life, and paintings depicting rulers and monarchs appeared. The enamel painting spread quickly not only due to the many possibilities of decorating but this technique covered small defects in the glass.  In this way the glassmakers could also use the second quality glass.  For this particular reason, Czech glass painting was influenced for the centuries to come.  

  Except for the enamel painting, much Renaissance glass made from greenish glass mass was decorated by various molted-on techniques. 

  The epoch of the emperor Rudolf II influenced the art of the Czech countries very strongly because he resided in Prague. At the end of the 16th century and beginning of the 17th century, important attempts were made at glass engraving.   The pioneer of this glass engraving was Casper Lehmann who was originally a diamond cutter.  He was the first to create goblets decorated with rich engravings. This technique predetermined the later Czech Baroque production. 

  After the Thirty Year War, in Czech countries, clear glass called Czech Crystal began to be melted. The character of this glass corresponded to the Baroque art style. The Czech Crystal became a specialty and the demand at the beginning of the 18th century was so large that the Czechs became the largest exporters of crystal in the world. At this time, many new glass export companies were founded and they had affiliations in many important ports, not only in Europe but in Asia and South America also.

  Czech engraved Baroque glass is defined by the perfection of the glass mass and also by delicate masterful engravings. At the beginning, this masterful work was exclusive for the Emperors and Kings, but soon after, many engraving factories were established around the Czech countries and produced not only luxury pieces for the upper class but also commercial glass for the middle class.  The most popular motifs were allegorical and figural scenes, texts, names, monograms and of course, dates. The advance of technology of Czech glass is confirmed by various marginal productions that did not influence the style, but are remarkable by its execution, for example double walled glasses.

  At the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century, the painting art was influenced by Rococo and Classicism, mostly in the country of origin – France – but was also obvious in Europe. In Czech countries, the glassmaking traditions were very strong and therefore the influence was slower.

  The production of the typical Baroque engraved glass decreased at the second half of the 18th century and some of the glassworks experienced difficulty selling the glass.  In some regions, the production returned to enamel painting especially glass for less wealthy people and ordinary citizens.  The crisis peaked at the time of the Napoleonic Wars. The important role among the glassworks was kept by Harrachov glassworks in Nový Svět in Krkonoše. Somewhere between 1860 and 1869, the production of milk (opaline) glass started and made the glassworks famous around the world.

  After the Napoleonic Wars ended, the Czech market was overtaken by English cut glass, which the Czech glassmakers attempted to imitate for a short time.  The first Czech to make the English cut glass was Pavel Meyr from Šumava.  These foreign patterns were soon pushed from the market by the strength of the old traditions.  Since the 1820s, the Czech glass production began to rise.  In the first half of the 19th century, in the Novy Bor area, lived Bedrich Egermann, the “magician“ of glass production.  While Europe was trying to imitate the English cut glass, Egermann was experimenting with colored glass masses.  He invented a new art style and opened new views on glass as an artifact.  Thanks to him, it was possible to overcome age-old opinions on the style of glass production coming from clear glass only. Egermann originated the idea of producing opaque colored glass masses and decorating with glaze. These techniques inspired the glass production in the second half of the 19th century and most importantly, art nouveau and modern art mainstreams in the 20th century.

  Innovations of technology were brought not only by B. Egermann but also by many other Czech glassworks.  Their productions enriched not only the Czech markets but also all other markets around the world.  Czech glass once again, became very popular in the world markets.  Compared to glass making industries which developed in the second half of the 19th century in other countries, countries which did not have such a long glass making tradition, the Czech glassmakers were always able to maintain their top position. 

  For Czech glass of the second half of the 19th century, inspiration by the Orient and imitation of various historical styles is typical.  The new principles of art nouveau style became popular thanks to the Czech glassmakers.    

The Oldest Glassworks

 From very brief mentions in written documents from pre-Hussite times (1350 to 1420) we know of about 21 glassworks (11 in Bohemia, 8 in Silesia, 3 in Moravia) although according to archaeological finds of Gothic glass made in Czech countries, there must have been many more.

  Glassworks, whether from the Middle Ages, Renaissance or Gothic times, could only be found in the deep forest. Around the glassworks sometimes, grew a small village usually located by a stream in the valley.  Glassworks not only used to be the center of glassmaking but also independent economic bodies having its own agriculture and other kinds of productions.

  The center of Bohemian was the oldest colonized area and since pre-historic times, the population was very dense.  Therefore there were not enough forests and that is why this area was not suitable to build glassworks.  Most of the glassworks were established in the pre-border areas, which had dense forests and steep hills, both in the North and South areas.

  Glassworks needed huge amounts of wood, not only to heat the ovens but also to produce potassium,  the important ingredient needed in melting the glass.  According to old documents, to obtain one kilogram of potassium, several tenths of kilograms of good beech wood was needed.  It usually did not take much time to chop all the wood in the glassworks neighborhood.  As soon the wood area became too far away for the wood to be carried to the glassworks, the glassworks instead moved to the wood area.  For this reason, most of the Middle Age glassworks did not last long.  In some regions during the 18th and 19th century, there was a prohibition of chopping trees for the use of glassworks as the manorial nobility wanted to preserve the wood for forestry.

  Only from sporadic mentions and without other details, we know that in the 14th and 15th century, there were glassworks in the Šumava region near the villages Sklenářova Lhota, Skláře u Hořic, Pasečna, Prachatice, then in Eastern and Northern Bohemia in Modava, Doubice, Chřibská, Sklenářice u Vysokého, Dolní Krupá and Mnichovo Hradiště, and also in Českomoravská vrchovina in the villages Skelné u Křižanova, Skelné u Nového Města na Moravě, Skelné u Svitav and Jindřichův Hradec.

  Glassworks Chřibská

  Glassworks Chřibská, whose logo shows the date 1414, is considered to be the oldest glassworks in the world and was operated without interruption for almost six centuries. The historical fact is that the oldest preserved document mentioning the glassworks bears no date. It is assumed that the document originated during the lifetime of Berka of Dubá, one of the most powerful North Bohemian feudal lords, sometime between 1408 and 1428. Another record, the Estate Rolls entry from 1457 mentioned the glassworks, but without any further details.

  The establishment date 1414 is derived from the testimony of the reeve of Chřibská glass master Friedrich, who in 1514 sold this glassworks with the farmyard, sawmill and flour mill, and with all freedom and rights with which it was endowed one hundred years ago. From  this testimony this particular date is derived, even though from some of the latest archaeological finds from around the glassworks, we can estimate that the glassworks may have already stood there at the end of the 14th century.

The Middle Ages

  The oldest written document about a stained glass window in Bohemia is from 1162. In that year, John the Third, bishop of Prague, ordered two stained glass windows with biblical scenes. There are many reports about stained glass windows from the following years. These documents testify to the fact that this kind of art spread greatly in medieval Bohemia.

 Except for stained glass windows, the glazing of windows with circular glass panes fastened by lead stripes (or connected with lead stripes) expanded in medieval Bohemia. These glass panes, also known as “see-through circles” in period documents, represented a substantial part of the production of glassworks of that time. In 1451 Cardinal Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini (later Pope Pius the Second) wrote that no other country in Europe has so many windows glazed by circular glass panes or stained glass as in Bohemia, where you could find glazed windows even in small towns and villages.

  New inspirations to European handicrafts were brought by the Crusades in the 13th century. Because of it, the technical and technological improvements followed. Medieval glassworks did not produce merely greenish, so-called “Forest Glass”, but also clear glass (unlike the other central-European countries). Bohemian medieval glassmakers were also able to color the glass with various metal oxides – blue with cobalt, red with copper, light green with iron. Colored glass mass was used for decorative purposes mainly – knobs, ribs and also stained glass panes were made from it.

  The assortment of Gothic glass was relatively wide. Except for circular glass panes, glass beads and pearls were produced. A stimulus to their production was given by the Dominican order, who pushed the believers to use rosaries. Rosary beads were made mostly in Šumava region, where this tradition persevered until the 18th century. After 1430 the rosary beads (generally called “paters” – as the name was derived from the first words of the Lord’s prayer, Pater noster) were exported via Nuremberg to the whole Europe.

  Medieval doctors, pharmacists, charlatans and alchemists required various specially shaped glass vessels. Although the distillation crucibles, flasks and other vessels of that time have not been preserved, they attained considerable fame in Central Europe. Medical books written in those times, explicitly preferred Bohemian glasses to any other.

  In the assortment of glass, production of drinking glass prevailed (goblets, cups, tumblers, bottles etc…). The tall, slender, flute-shaped glass of the so-called “Bohemian type” can be considered the most typical product of Czech Gothic glassmaking. Also very often, the glass with a bowl-shaped cup and molted-on, pearl-like drops was produced. In the 13th century, another vessel called “Kutrolf”  became very popular in Europe. It was a special bottle with a neck plated with two, three or four tubes. Even though there existed many different shapes of gothic glass, they all were, by their shape and decoration, characteristic for single homogeneous mainstream. This gives evidence that the production of single glassworks, which were very often far away from each other, was not isolated. The glassmakers communicated and were well informed by the glass merchants they worked with.

The so-called Bohemian type glass

 Is a slender, tall glass (40-60cm), flute or club-shaped, made from greenish Forest glass, decorated with molten-on glass pearls, zigzag glass threads and many other decoration techniques. It was made from the second half of the 14th century until the second half of the 15th century. It is represented far more frequently in the findings of the Bohemian regions than in the other European countries. Accordingly to old paintings and archaeological finds, it was in standard use not only for the ruler’s court and the tables of the noblemen, but also for burgess households (archaeological finds in Plzeň, Ústí, Praha, Most, Pardubice and many other towns).

  The origin of the shape and decoration of this cup links with the Palestinian art of the 13th century. It can be assumed that it was the participants of the Crusades that made their acquaintance and mediated their style to Central Europe. It is even possible that some Jewish glassmakers left Palestine with Crusaders (because of the invasion of  the Saracens) and brought pearl-like decorations to Bohemia.

  The assumption of Palestinian inspiration is supported by the fact that the oldest glasses of Bohemian type were found on the sites which had some relation to the order of Teutonic Knights.

The Forest Glass

  The Forest Glass is a name for the greenish glass mass used in Middle Ages. Metal oxides, present in glass sand, cause this color and medieval glassmakers were not able to get rid of it. Because the quality of glass sand varied depending on the location, the colors of glass mass varied greatly in medieval Europe.

  German sands contain a high percentage of iron admixtures (and also copper and chromium oxides). That is why the German medieval glass mass was of a greener color. In later times, the glass mass used to be artificially colored so that the final color was dark green. These dark green glasses were very popular in Germany at the time.

  The Czech glass was much different though. Czech glass sands are incomparably cleaner and  Czech glassworks used better technology in melting the glass mass. The Czech glass had a greenish tinge and sometimes was rather clear (with a light-gray tinge). Accordingly to the color of the glass mass it is possible to determine the origin of products. This relatively clear glass mass served as a rudiment of later invented clear crystal.

  The medieval glass mass was melted with high content of admixtures, which “softened” the glass and also made it “longer”. The definition “longer glass” means that the glass cooled down very slowly and it was possible to work with it for a longer time without re-heating it. The glass could be decorated with many sophisticated decorative techniques (for example molted-on glass pearls).

  Analysis of the glass mass used at the time show, that potassium-calcium raw material was used in medieval Bohemia, unlike the Mediterranean glass which used to be made from sodium-calcium raw material. This fact augured the later invention of “Czech crystal” in Baroque (as the main substance of “Czech crystal” is potassium-calcium raw material).

 The Renaissance

Renaissance was not only a new art style, but also a new peoples’ attitude to life, mundane and spiritual matters. It was a Renaissance, which happened to be an important milestone of European glass making both from a technological and an artistic point of view. Step by step, the new opinion of glass, its design and use was formed.

  The revolutionary change was brought by enamel-paint which was  invented in Venetia. Even the Venetian glassworks kept the way of this production secret (any glassmaker who would try to escape from the glassworks and reveal their secrets would be punished by the death sentence). In spite of that, the technique of enamel painting soon got into Bohemia. The beginning is not very clear. Accordingly to one version, this technique appears for the first time in Novohradské hory region (in Rožmberská huť pod Vilémovou horou) and the knowledge was brought there by one of the Venetian glass masters. Accordingly to other documents, this technique is linked with the glassworks that belonged to Pavel Schurrer, who in 1530 established a glassworks in Falknov (today’s Kytlice). Another document declares, that enamel-painted glass used to be produced in Northern Bohemia at Sloup estate. This technique begun very popular and spread all over Bohemia during the second half of the 16th century.

  A typical product of  Czech Renaissance painted glass was the so-called “welcome beaker”, capable of holding several liters and decorated with enamel-paint, Coat of Arms etc.  In addition, small cups decorated with figural, less often floral compositions were made.

  The Renaissance gave rise to a number of new shapes such as tankards, jugs, rectangular bottles and various goblets. Because of the playfulness of the Renaissance, the glassworks produced various funny vessels – beakers with threaded-on tinkling rings, vessels from which it was possible to drink only with a straw or even beakers from which it was impossible to drink from at all since the liquid spilled out onto the drinker through a hole in the glass.

  The most important novelty was the use of colored glass mass. From 1570,  blue cobalt glass was popular in the North Bohemia Schurer glassworks, especially in the Owl Glassworks near Nejdek. The popularity of blue cobalt glass (exceptionally decorated with enamel-paint) lasted until the beginning of the Thirty Year War.

 The Baroque

 The stylistic and art basis of Baroque can already be sought in the mannerism of the court art of the epoch of  Emperor Rudolph II. As a style of art, it was closely linked with reformation ideology, however, the Baroque asserted itself in Central Europe only as late as in the second half of the 17th century, after the end of The Thirty Year War and victory of Catholicism, represented by the Hapsburg dynasty.

  In the beginning of the 18th century, the shape of the goblets changed. The actual cup was taller, more-like conical shaped, while the foot was shorter, and very often decorated with facet cut (cutting of flat surfaces – facets). Very often, the goblets were with lids (so-called “Balustroid goblet style” ) and appeared for the first time in Sumava region in south-western Bohemia. The diamond engraving made it possible. The line was very delicate and deep which made the composition look more plastic.

  Glass cutting and engraving was concentrated in a few areas. The biggest were located in North Bohemia near Česká Lípa in demesnes Sloup, Libchava, Česká Kamenice, others were below Jizerské Hory mountains near Jablonec nad Nisou and the third center was in Silesia.

 The Rococo and the Classicism


In the second half of the 18th century, the production of glass in Bohemia dropped steeply. The Rococo feel, unlike Baroque, was not splendor and sumptuous, so only a few masters continued this tradition. One of the best glass cutters and engravers of those times was the Lechner family in the estate on Nové Hrady in southern Bohemia..

  A specific way of development in the manufacturing of glass can be observed around Jablonec nad Nisou, where so-called “Turnov composition“ was invented in 1711 – glass mass imitating precious stones in appearance. It was an ideal material for cutting and was later used for imitation of precious stones. This production established a very famous tradition of manufacturing imitations of costly jewelry in Jablonec nad Nisou. Cut glass pieces were also used in another famous branch – the manufacturing of chandeliers. Glass cutting (from which hundreds of families lived on) dispersed from the workshops to the cottages. The household producers had their grinders at home and brought the finished pieces to the agent from whom they received wages. This way of manufacturing was very progressive and provided organizational backup for the high volume of production and fair wages.

  In the second half of the 18th century, the decorating with enamel paints revived again. It was not however, intended for the wealthy strata of population, but for the widest circle of customers both from rural and urban areas. For many rich farmers, the possession of glass was a matter of prestige. In Šumava regions, decorated snuff bottles and also painted brandy bottles were very popular.

  The most famous glassworks of those times was the Harrachov glassworks in Nový Svět in Krkonoše Mountains. From the sixties of the 18th century, this glassworks produced milk (opaline) glass, which was very popular at those times.  Napoleonic wars and the following blockade severely damaged the Bohemian glass industry.. Only a few workshops surpassed the average, primarily in the places where the glyptic tradition remained alive. Together with the Harrachov glassworks in Nový Svět, the enterprise in Karlovy Vary also attained one of the foremost places in glass engraving and glass cutting, who had regular customers in the visitors to this health resort of world reputation (for this time, the beautifully engraved spa remembrance cups are characteristic).

  After the defeat of Napoleonic France, for a short period of time, the English cut dominated on the European markets.  The classicist diamond cut in combination with engraved decoration soon developed into an original Bohemian style, which however, did not last long. While European glassworks were imitating the English cut, in Bohemia a new phase of glassmaking began, opening new ways to modern glass art – applications of new colored glass masses, which enabled the evolution of completely new decorating techniques (cased glass, production of matt glass, etc…).

Bedřich Egermann

  He was born on April 5th, 1777 and  died January 1st, 1864. He apprenticed in the trade of porcelain painter in Meissen. After his return to Bohemia, he became a glass painter. He established a studio in Polevsko, famous for its finely painted decorations on matt opaque glass. He was not only an excellent technologist and a pioneer of new types of glass masses, but also an artist breaking classicist lines, giving them, in the spirit of the Empire predilection for minerals, a prismatic palette and a quite different style.

  In 1820, already  a wealthy entrepreneur, Egermann settled in Nový Bor,(Haida) where he began experimenting with red and yellow glazes and was the first one in the world to manufacture.  F. Egermann acquired a production privilege (patent) for red glaze and it soon appeared in many other glassworks not only in Bohemia, but quickly spread literally on all continents.

Egermann acquired even greater fame with his next discovery of marble glass, imitating semi-precious stones called lythialin. He obtained a privilege for the manufacture  of lithyalin in 1828, but in spite of that,  lithyalin glass was soon produced in many other glassworks around the country. Products from marble glass used to be thick-walled and decorated with cut.

 Art Nouveau

  French artist E. Gallé made the first attempts of the production in this new style already in the eighties of the 19th century. Several years later, the same tendencies asserted themselves in the work of one of the most significant personalities of Art Nouveau glassmaking, L.C. Tiffany, living and working in USA. They were both using metallic luster, iridescent elements, hot-shaped decors from wound and combed fibers. This style was typical for the later Art-Nouveau glassmaking.

Production of Art-Nouveau glass required good technical equipment and skilled glass masters. Bohemian glassworks were well prepared and the Bohemian Art-Nouveau glass soon ranked among the best in the world.

  The glassworks J. Loetz in Klášterecký Mlýn, owned by King Max von Spaun, occupied the leading position. The success of this glassworks was not incidental. As early as in the nineties of the 19th century, they produced iridized glass, for which they were awarded numerous prizes (at the exhibition in Vienna in 1890 and in Chicago in 1893). Outstanding works were also produced by the glassworks of Adolfov near Vimperk, Dvory near Karlovy Vary, Harrachov, Košťany and Polubný similarly is the refineries in Nový Bor and Jablonec nad Nisou.

Industrial Expansion in the Second Half of the 19th Century and in the First Half of the 20th Century

In the 1870’s this region witnessed the introduction of the railroad, which made the transportation of coal – amongst other goods – so convenient. Subsequently coal began to be gasified, in which form it was used to heat glass furnaces. New technologies were soon adopted by dynamic businessmen who established a network of new glassworks to meet the needs of local glass refiners. This initiated a grand expansion of glassworks’ basic industries, along with the establishment of the glassworks in the Lusatian Mountains and their foothills which did not stop until the economic crisis of the 1930’s, followed by the period of the Second World War. Following the Second World War, many of these factories were not reopened.

Four new glassworks, usually named after their owners’ wives, were established in Falknov-Kytlice: ‘Augusta’ Glassworks in 1874, ‘Marie’ Glassworks and ‘Tereza’ Glassworks in 1893, and ‘Rudolf’ Glassworks in 1900. None of them are in existence anymore. Other glassworks were built in Kamenický Šenov: ‘Rückl’ Glassworks, established in 1886 and known today as Severosklo a.s.; the contemporary glassworks run by the Jílek Brothers, which was originally put into operation in 1905; and the glassworks in Prácheň near Kamenický Šenov in 1908. The first glass factory erected in Nový Bor in 1874 was called ‘Helena’; however, this factory does not exist any longer too. Another factory was known as the School Glassworks, operated by a specialised school of glass making and commissioned in 1910. Nowadays, it serves the needs of the same school again. In 1913, Flora Glassworks was built. Today it is owned by the limited liability company, Egermann. In 1893 a glass factory owned by the Rückl company was founded in Skalice, near Česká Lípa. This factory is still in operation. In Polevsko, two glassworks were erected: the first, ‘Anna’, in 1900 (which was later closed down); and the other, ‘Klára’, in 1907. In 1872, a glassworks called ‘Tereza’ was built in Svor (it is currently out of operation), followed by the Anna Glassworks opened in Dolní Prysk in 1907. The latter is owned by the joint-stock company, Preciosa. Of 18 glassworks established between the 1870’s and 1930’s, only nine have survived to see the year 2000, including the glassworks in Horní Chřibská which closed in 2012.

Of key significance for the success of Bohemian Art-Nouveau glass was the connection of production with the leading artists, especially the close cooperation with the Viennese school of arts and crafts. Close cooperation was also established with companies J.and L. Lobmeyr and Bakalowitz and Sons. The Viennese Art-Nouveau attained an original expression of its own – it was cultured, moderated in form and colors, and tented to develop ornaments in a plane. It was this very concept that impressed to Bohemian Art-Nouveau glass, its inimitable character, for which it was appreciated, together with the technical quality of its execution, all over the world.

  The wave of Art-Nouveau enthusiasm from the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century soon began to subside. The new trends appeared in the art, concentrating on simpler and more practical designs. In spite of that the Art-Nouveau glass sold well until the First World War, which brought an end to this art style. After the end of the First World War, some principles of the Art-Nouveau style developed into the new artistic style Art-Deco, which however, never reached the success and popularity of older Art-Nouveau style.

The Present times.

The local glass making industry suffered another bad blow after the Second World War due to the expulsion of the German population that included a substantial number of qualified craftsmen and skilled laborers. Mountain glassworks – traditional centers of domestic refiners – were nearly depopulated. Attempts to renew their prosperity failed, and the original glass producing villages were turned into recreational and tourist sites. After the electoral victory of the Communist Party in 1948, the process of nationalisation merged all functional glass factories into these so-called nationally-owned companies: Borské sklo in Nový Bor and Lustry in Kamnický Šenov.

The oldest glass making school in Europe

The tradition of glass making schools in the Czech Republic has lasted for almost one hundred and fifty years and they have been of great importance both for glass making and for art culture. The whole system of secondary art technical schools, which not just glass making but also jewel, ceramics, fabric and graphic making schools belong to, is very unique and after the Czech republic is accepted by the Europe Union, it can be one of the most significant contributions to its development. The largest concentration of these school is in the capital city Prague and in the Liberec region,(Novy Bor and Zelezny Brod) where there are three secondary art glass making schools, one glass making school and one glass making college. The main task of all these schools is to educate skilled glass maker and foremen, professional glass technicians and technologists, production designers, company managers and entrepreneurs, but some school leavers study at technical and especially art universities. Then they become glass artists and teachers and also painters, sculptors and restorers.

The first school leavers studied at the College of Applied Arts in Vienna in the 1870s already and others followed them. In the 1920s and 1930s some of them attended the College of Applied Arts in Prague, which has educated future glass artists in special glass studios for over eighty years.

Kamenicky Senov was the Sunday school for drawing, which was founded for local school pupils, glass apprentices and makers in 1839. The glass making school in Novy Bor was established in 1856 as local producer wished it to ensure professional preparation of local glass painter and engraver and to influence the art, craft and technical level of glass making by school principals and teachers. Since the middle of the 19th century a high level of Bohemian glass making has been maintained by leavers of this school, too.

Till the end of the 1870s students learnt only drawing and modeling at this school; they learnt glass handicraft in home workshops. Since the beginning of the 1980s they have learnt glass painting, engraving and later glass cutting and sandblasting at school. To the posts of school principals and teachers graduates from colleges of applied arts have been appointed, skilled glass painters, engravers and cutters have led their students in school workshops. The good results of the school of Kamenicky Senov accelerated the decision to found a similar school in Nový Bor too (1870). The experiences of both schools were used then by founders of glass making schools in Zwiesel (1904) and Zelezny Brod (1920).

Until the end of 1961 the school was a subsidiary of the glass making school in Nový Bor. After that it became independent. It began by traditional glass painting and cutting sections and a new section of light creating and construction. In 1969 the glass engraving section was founded. These are the four sections the school consists of at present and remarkable results are achieved. The school declares itself as a successor of Bohemian glass making and it has existed for one hundred and fifty years. They collaborate with the company Preciosa-Lustry, Brother Jilek’s Glassworks and Peter Rath’s Studio in Kamenicky Senov, with Moser’s Glassworks in Carlsbad and other companies, they participate in International Symposiums of Engraved Glass in Kamenicky Senov and exhibits in this country and abroad.

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Types of Glass

Posted by Radka Volhejnova on

  • Vitreous Silica – ‘Quartz’ Glass

Ground quartz materials are melted under vacuum, to remove gas bubbles, at 2000oC with approximately 10-2 % impurities.
The glass possesses a low thermal expansion coefficient (6.7×10-7/K) and is thermally stable to around 1000oC. Devitrification to cristobalite begins between 1150oC and 1200oC. The vitreous melts are highly viscous.
Some vitreous silicas are produced at lower temperatures or without the use of vacuum. These are characteristically opaque due to many small bubbles in the mass of the glass.
Modifications may be made to produce highly reactive forms of silica.

 

  • Sodium Silicate – ‘Water Glass’

Sodium silicate is melted from quartz and soda at 1400°C. Dissolution of the glass granulate is carried out at elevated temperature in pressure autoclaves.
The application of sodium silicate as a binder solution in many ceramic systems makes this material attractive as an adhesive.
The content of SiO2 in the initial glass ranges from 66-76 wt.% and the content of sodium silicate varies in the liquid form depending upon the grade.
Potassium silicate water glass is also manufactured for special purposes e.g. acid resistant cements.

 

  • Sheet and Container Glass (Soda-Lime-Silica)

The basic formulation of soda lime glasses varies little between flat and container (holloware) applications e.g. 72% SiO2, 14% Na2O(K2O), 9% CaO, 2-4% MgO, 1-2 % Al2O3.
Due to the high alkali content the glasses have relatively high thermal expansion coefficients 8.0-9.0 x10-6 /K and low viscosity at temperature due to the low Al2O3content.

 

  • ‘Crystal’ Glasses (K2O-CaO-SiO2, K2O-PbO- SiO2)

Lead and potassium oxides are characteristic components of glasses called ‘crystal’. K2O and PbO are also common components of optical, sealing, and other technical glasses.
The term crystal denotes a high-grade clear colourless glass with high gloss and optical transmission. Conventionally only glass containing more than 24% PbO and having a refractive index exceeding 1.545 is termed crystal.
K2O and PbO promote the brilliant appearance of the glass. Glasses are formed with up to 65% K2O in the K2O-SiO2 system and 80 wt.% PbO in the PbO-SiO2 systems.
In most instances, industrially produced crystal glasses are more complex than the basic ternary system. Other components include Na2O, BaO, ZnO, B2O3 and MgO.
Lead crystal glasses contain 24-32 wt.% PbO. Typical compositions for K2O and PbO types are given in table 1.

Refining agents such as sodium sulphate NaSO4, arsenic As2O3, and antimony Sb2O3 are often employed.
Lead glasses are easily shaped, cut and polished and have thermal expansion coefficients range from 7.5-9×10-6/K.

 

  • Borosilicate Glasses

These are glasses which can exhibit improved thermal shock resistance due to relatively low thermal expansion coefficients <5.0×10-7/K. Originally developed for laboratory use, they now find wide application in industrial and domestic situations.

 

  • PYREX glasses are of this type.

These glasses tend to have low alkali contents and high SiO2 contents e.g.>80 wt.%.

 

  • White Opaque – Opal Glass

Opal glasses show a milky opalescence. Opacity may be due to the presence of a dispersed crystalline, vitreous or gaseous phase. In practice it is usually developed by the introduction of fluorides to the batch. An example formula is given in table

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Types of Glass

Posted by Radka Volhejnova on

  • Vitreous Silica – ‘Quartz’ Glass

Ground quartz materials are melted under vacuum, to remove gas bubbles, at 2000oC with approximately 10-2 % impurities.
The glass possesses a low thermal expansion coefficient (6.7×10-7/K) and is thermally stable to around 1000oC. Devitrification to cristobalite begins between 1150oC and 1200oC. The vitreous melts are highly viscous.
Some vitreous silicas are produced at lower temperatures or without the use of vacuum. These are characteristically opaque due to many small bubbles in the mass of the glass.
Modifications may be made to produce highly reactive forms of silica.

 

  • Sodium Silicate – ‘Water Glass’

Sodium silicate is melted from quartz and soda at 1400°C. Dissolution of the glass granulate is carried out at elevated temperature in pressure autoclaves.
The application of sodium silicate as a binder solution in many ceramic systems makes this material attractive as an adhesive.
The content of SiO2 in the initial glass ranges from 66-76 wt.% and the content of sodium silicate varies in the liquid form depending upon the grade.
Potassium silicate water glass is also manufactured for special purposes e.g. acid resistant cements.

 

  • Sheet and Container Glass (Soda-Lime-Silica)

The basic formulation of soda lime glasses varies little between flat and container (holloware) applications e.g. 72% SiO2, 14% Na2O(K2O), 9% CaO, 2-4% MgO, 1-2 % Al2O3.
Due to the high alkali content the glasses have relatively high thermal expansion coefficients 8.0-9.0 x10-6 /K and low viscosity at temperature due to the low Al2O3content.

 

  • ‘Crystal’ Glasses (K2O-CaO-SiO2, K2O-PbO- SiO2)

Lead and potassium oxides are characteristic components of glasses called ‘crystal’. K2O and PbO are also common components of optical, sealing, and other technical glasses.
The term crystal denotes a high-grade clear colourless glass with high gloss and optical transmission. Conventionally only glass containing more than 24% PbO and having a refractive index exceeding 1.545 is termed crystal.
K2O and PbO promote the brilliant appearance of the glass. Glasses are formed with up to 65% K2O in the K2O-SiO2 system and 80 wt.% PbO in the PbO-SiO2 systems.
In most instances, industrially produced crystal glasses are more complex than the basic ternary system. Other components include Na2O, BaO, ZnO, B2O3 and MgO.
Lead crystal glasses contain 24-32 wt.% PbO. Typical compositions for K2O and PbO types are given in table 1.

Refining agents such as sodium sulphate NaSO4, arsenic As2O3, and antimony Sb2O3 are often employed.
Lead glasses are easily shaped, cut and polished and have thermal expansion coefficients range from 7.5-9×10-6/K.

 

  • Borosilicate Glasses

These are glasses which can exhibit improved thermal shock resistance due to relatively low thermal expansion coefficients <5.0×10-7/K. Originally developed for laboratory use, they now find wide application in industrial and domestic situations.

 

  • PYREX glasses are of this type.

These glasses tend to have low alkali contents and high SiO2 contents e.g.>80 wt.%.

 

  • White Opaque – Opal Glass

Opal glasses show a milky opalescence. Opacity may be due to the presence of a dispersed crystalline, vitreous or gaseous phase. In practice it is usually developed by the introduction of fluorides to the batch. An example formula is given in table

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Inside the Lead Crystal Manufacturing Process

Posted by Radka Volhejnova on

Lead crystal is produced following an eight-step process that can only be carried out by experienced artisans. It’s an intricate process, and attention to quality is essential at every step. Artists start with a mix of silica sand, potash and red lead. The amount of lead used can vary from house to house, but the manufacturing process remains the same.


The base cocktail is melted down in a furnace heated to nearly 2,200 degrees Fahrenheit. Controlling furnace conditions is essential to protecting glass purity.
A team of four to seven artists transfers the mass of molten crystal to wooden blocks or molds that will be used to give it shape. The crystal is blown to fit the mold.


The glass blowers continue their art to create a chamber in the vessel. Pieces such as handles are added.


The piece is moved to an annealing oven that helps slow down the cooling process and improve durability.


Once it’s cooled, an artists can draw a pattern onto the vessel. Rough cuts are made using special wheels.


A sandstone wheel is used to dress the rough cuts so that the finished design comes together.


Once all cutting is complete, the piece is dipped in a mix of hydrofluoric and sulphuric acids. The acids help remove a thin layer of glass to leave a uniform surface with high luster.


On some pieces, a process called intaglio is used to engrave text, portraits or other illustrations.


Once the process is completed, each piece is carefully inspected to ensure that it meets quality and design standards.

At CARLO QUATRO, we pride ourselves on creating beautiful products that meet the very highest standards. If it’s lead crystal you’re dreaming of, we can help.

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Inside the Lead Crystal Manufacturing Process

Posted by Radka Volhejnova on

Lead crystal is produced following an eight-step process that can only be carried out by experienced artisans. It’s an intricate process, and attention to quality is essential at every step. Artists start with a mix of silica sand, potash and red lead. The amount of lead used can vary from house to house, but the manufacturing process remains the same.


The base cocktail is melted down in a furnace heated to nearly 2,200 degrees Fahrenheit. Controlling furnace conditions is essential to protecting glass purity.
A team of four to seven artists transfers the mass of molten crystal to wooden blocks or molds that will be used to give it shape. The crystal is blown to fit the mold.


The glass blowers continue their art to create a chamber in the vessel. Pieces such as handles are added.


The piece is moved to an annealing oven that helps slow down the cooling process and improve durability.


Once it’s cooled, an artists can draw a pattern onto the vessel. Rough cuts are made using special wheels.


A sandstone wheel is used to dress the rough cuts so that the finished design comes together.


Once all cutting is complete, the piece is dipped in a mix of hydrofluoric and sulphuric acids. The acids help remove a thin layer of glass to leave a uniform surface with high luster.


On some pieces, a process called intaglio is used to engrave text, portraits or other illustrations.


Once the process is completed, each piece is carefully inspected to ensure that it meets quality and design standards.

At CARLO QUATRO, we pride ourselves on creating beautiful products that meet the very highest standards. If it’s lead crystal you’re dreaming of, we can help.

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How Lead Crystal is Made

Posted by Radka Volhejnova on

Lead crystal stands out as one of the most traditional and beautiful choices for items ranging from decanters to clocks to awards.


At CARLO QUATRO, we love working with lead crystal because it adds unmistakable class to any product. It goes through an intricate process of transformation from raw material to finished piece that can only be completed by talented artisans.


It’s as durable as it is gorgeous, and we know that our clients love it.
Have you ever wondered, though, what sets lead crystal apart from regular old glass?


The simplest answer to the question lies in the name. Unlike other types of glass, this variety is manufactured using a lead oxide that adds durability and gives the finished product the warmth and sparkle for which it’s so well known.


Here at CARLO QUATRO, we love letting our clients in on the design process.
That means involving you in the product development process, and it also means providing you with great background information about materials.

Read more

How Lead Crystal is Made

Posted by Radka Volhejnova on

Lead crystal stands out as one of the most traditional and beautiful choices for items ranging from decanters to clocks to awards.


At CARLO QUATRO, we love working with lead crystal because it adds unmistakable class to any product. It goes through an intricate process of transformation from raw material to finished piece that can only be completed by talented artisans.


It’s as durable as it is gorgeous, and we know that our clients love it.
Have you ever wondered, though, what sets lead crystal apart from regular old glass?


The simplest answer to the question lies in the name. Unlike other types of glass, this variety is manufactured using a lead oxide that adds durability and gives the finished product the warmth and sparkle for which it’s so well known.


Here at CARLO QUATRO, we love letting our clients in on the design process.
That means involving you in the product development process, and it also means providing you with great background information about materials.

Read more